History Of Mumbai | Mumbai History

Indigenous tribals have inhabited Mumbai (Bombay) because the Stone Age. The Kolis and Aagri (a Marathi-Konkani individuals) had been the earliest identified settlers of the islands. The Maurya Empire gained management of the islands throughout the third century BCE and reworked them right into a centre of Hindu-Buddhist tradition and faith. Later, between the 2nd century BCE and tenth century CE, the islands got here beneath the management of successive indigenous dynasties: the Satavahanas, Abhiras, Vakatakas, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Silharas& Cholas.

Rajendra Chola’s conquest over Mumbai which was at the moment 7 islands was talked about within the meikeerti of Rajendra Chola …..

Bhima of Mahikavati established a small kingdom within the space throughout the late thirteenth century, and introduced settlers. The Delhi Sultanate captured the islands in 1348, they usually had been later handed to the Sultanate of Guzerat from 1391. The Treaty of Bassein (1534) between the Portuguese viceroy Nuno da Cunha and Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, positioned the islands into Portuguese possession in 1534.

The islands suffered the Maratha Invasion of Goa and Bombay, and the Mughal invasions of Konkan (1684) in the direction of the tip of seventeenth century. During the English East India Company’s rule in mid-18th century, it emerged as an necessary port metropolis, having maritime commerce contacts with Mecca, Basra and so forth. Economic improvement characterised British Bombay within the nineteenth century, the first-ever Indian railway line commenced operations between Bombay harbour and Taana metropolis in 1853. Since the early 1900s, the town has additionally the house base of the Bollywood movie business. The metropolis turned a robust base for the Indian independence motion throughout the early twentieth century, it was the centre of the Rowlatt Satyagraha of 1919 and Royal Indian Navy Mutiny of 1946. After India’s independence in 1947, the territory of Bombay Presidency retained by India was restructured into Bombay State. The space of Bombay State elevated, after a number of erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union had been built-in into Bombay State.

In 1960, following protests from the Samyukta Maharashtra motion, the town was integrated into the newly created Maharashtra state from Bombay state. The Bombay metro space confronted some unlucky occasions just like the inter-communal riots of 1992–93, whereas the 1993 Mumbai bombings brought about in depth lack of life and property. Bombay was renamed Mumbai on 6 March 1996.

Pre-historic interval

Geologists imagine that the coast of western India got here into being round 100 to 80 mya, after it broke away from Madagascar. Soon after its detachment, the peninsular area of the Indian plate drifted over the Réunion hotspot, a volcanic hotspot within the Earth’s lithosphere close to the island of Réunion. An eruption right here some 66 mya is assumed to have laid down the Deccan Traps, an unlimited mattress of basalt lava that covers components of central India. This volcanic exercise resulted within the formation of basaltic outcrops, such because the Gilbert Hill, which are seen at numerous areas within the metropolis. Further tectonic exercise within the area led to the formation of hilly islands separated by a shallow sea. Pleistocene sediments discovered close to Kandivali in northern Mumbai by British archaeologist Malcolm Todd in 1939 point out habitation because the Stone Age. The current day metropolis was constructed on what was initially an archipelago of seven islands of Mumbai Island, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman’s Island (also called Little Colaba). The islands had been coalesced right into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard engineering venture in 1784. By 1000 BCE, the area was closely concerned in seaborne commerce with Egypt and Persia. The Koli fishing group had lengthy inhabited the islands. They had been Dravidian in origin and included numerous scattered tribes alongside the Vindhya Plateau, Gujarat, and Konkan. In Mumbai, there have been three or 4 of those tribes. Their spiritual practices may very well be summed up as animism.

Age of Dynastical Empires

The islands had been integrated into the Maurya Empire beneath Emperor Ashoka of Magadha within the third century BCE. The empire’s patronage made the islands a centre of Buddhist faith and tradition.[6] Buddhist monks, students, and artists created the art work, inscriptions, and sculpture of the Kanheri Caves within the mid third century BCE[9] and Mahakali Caves.[10] After the decline of the Maurya Empire round 185 BCE, these islands fell to the Satavahanas.[11] The port of Sopara (present-day Nala Sopara) was an necessary buying and selling centre throughout the first century BCE,[12] with commerce contacts with Rome.[13] The islands had been often called Heptanesia (Ancient Greek: A Cluster of Seven Islands) to the Greek geographer Ptolemy in 150 CE.[14] After the tip of the Satavahana rule in 250 CE, the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra and Vakatakas of Vidarbha held dominion over the islands. The Abhiras dominated for 167 years, until round 417 CE.[11] The Kalachuris of Central India dominated the islands throughout the fifth century,[15] which had been then acquired by the Mauryas of Konkan within the sixth and early a part of the seventh century.[11] The Mauryas had been feudatories of Kalachuris,[11] and the Jogeshwari Caves had been constructed throughout their regime between 520 and 525.[16] The Greek service provider Cosmas Indicopleustes visited Kalyan (close to Mumbai) throughout 530–550.[17] The Elephanta Caves additionally dates again to the sixth century.[18] Christianity arrived within the islands throughout the sixth century, when the Nestorian Church made its presence in India.[19] The Mauryan presence ended when the Chalukyas of Badami in Karnataka beneath Pulakeshin II invaded the islands in 610.[20] Dantidurga of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty of Karnataka conquered the islands throughout 749–750.

The Silhara dynasty of Konkan dominated the area between 810 and 1260.[21] The Walkeshwar Temple was constructed throughout the tenth century[22] and the Banganga Tank throughout the twelfth century beneath the patronage of the Silhara rulers.[23] The Italian traveler Marco Polo’s fleet of 13 Chinese ships handed via Mumbai Harbour throughout May — September 1292.[17][24] King Bhimdev based his kingdom within the area within the late thirteenth century[25] and established his capital in Mahikawati (current day Mahim).[26] He belonged to both the Yadava dynasty of Devagiri in Maharashtra or the Anahilavada dynasty of Gujarat.[25] He constructed the primary Babulnath temple within the area and launched many fruit-bearing timber, together with coconut palms to the islands.[27] The Pathare Prabhus, one of many earliest settlers of the town, had been delivered to Mahim from Patan and different components of Saurashtra in Gujarat round 1298 by Bhimdev throughout his reign.[28] He can also be purported to have introduced Palshis,[29] Pachkalshis,[29] Bhandaris, Vadvals, Bhois, Agris and Brahmins to those islands. After his loss of life in 1303, he was succeeded by his son Pratapbimba, who constructed his capital at Marol in Salsette, which he named Pratappur. The islands had been wrested from Pratapbimba’s management by Mubarak Khan, a self-proclaimed regent of the Khalji dynasty, who occupied Mahim and Salsette in 1318. Pratapbimba later reconquered the islands which he dominated until 1331. Later, his brother-in-law Nagardev for 17 years until 1348. The islands got here beneath the management of the Muslim rulers of Gujarat in 1348, ending the sovereignty of Hindu rulers over the islands.

Islamic interval

The islands had been beneath Muslim rule from 1348 to 1391. After the institution of the Gujarat Sultanate in 1391, Muzaffar Shah I used to be appointed viceroy of north Konkan.[30] For the administration of the islands, he appointed a governor for Mahim. During the reign of Ahmad Shah I (1411–1443), Malik-us-Sharq was appointed governor of Mahim, and along with instituting a correct survey of the islands, he improved the prevailing income system of the islands. During the early fifteenth century, the Bhandaris seized the island of Mahim from the Sultanate and dominated it for eight years.[31] It was reconquered by Rai Qutb of the Gujarat Sultanate.[32] Firishta, a Persian historian, recorded that by 1429 the seat of presidency of the Gujarat Sultanate in north Konkan had transferred from Thane to Mahim.[33] On Rai Qutb’s loss of life in 1429–1430, Ahmad Shah I Wali of the Bahmani Sultanate of Deccan captured Salsette and Mahim.[34][35]

Ahmad Shah I retaliated by sending his son Jafar Khan to recapture the misplaced territory. Jafar emerged victorious within the battle fought with Ahmad Shah I Wali. In 1431, Mahim was recaptured by the Sultanate of Gujarat.[35] The Sultanate’s patronage led to the development of many mosques, outstanding being the Haji Ali Dargah in Mahim, inbuilt honour the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431.[36] After the loss of life of Kutb Khan, the Gujarat commandant of Mahim, Ahmad Shah I Wali once more despatched a big military to seize Mahim. Ahmad Shah I responded with a big military and navy beneath Jafar Khan resulting in the defeat of Ahmad Shah I Wali.[37] During 1491–1494, the islands suffered sea piracies from Bahadur Khan Gilani, a nobleman of the Bahamani Sultanate.[38] After the tip of the Bahamani Sultanate, Bahadur Khan Gilani and Mahmud Gavan (1482–1518) broke out in insurrection on the port of Dabhol and conquered the islands together with the entire of Konkan.[32][39][40] Portuguese explorer Francisco de Almeida’s ship sailed into the deep pure harbour of the island in 1508, and he known as it Bom baía (Good Bay).[41] However, the Portuguese paid their first go to to the islands on 21 January 1509, after they landed at Mahim after capturing a Gujarat barge within the Mahim creek.[5] After a collection of assaults by the Gujarat Sultanate, the islands had been recaptured by Sultan Bahadur Shah.[32]

In 1526, the Portuguese established their manufacturing unit at Bassein.[42] During 1528–29, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio seized the fort of Mahim from the Gujarat Sultanate, when the King was at warfare with Nizam-ul-mulk, the emperor of Chaul, a city south of the islands.[43][44][45] Bahadur Shah had grown apprehensive of the ability of the Mughal emperor Humayun and he was obliged to signal the Treaty of Bassein with the Portuguese on 23 December 1534. According to the treaty, the islands of Mumbai and Bassein had been provided to the Portuguese.[46] Bassein and the seven islands had been surrendered later by a treaty of peace and commerce between Bahadur Shah and Nuno da Cunha, Viceroy of Portuguese India, on 25 October 1535, ending the Islamic rule in Mumbai.

Portuguese interval

The Portuguese had been actively concerned within the basis and development of their spiritual orders in Bombay. The islands had been leased to Mestre Diogo in 1534.[47] The San Miguel (St. Michael Church) in Mahim, one of many oldest church buildings in Bombay, was constructed by the Portuguese in 1540.[48] Parel, Wadala, Sion, and Worli had been granted to Manuel Serrão between 1545 and 1548, throughout the viceroyalty of João de Castro. Mazagaon was granted to Antonio Pessoa in 1547.[49] Salsette was granted for 3 years to João Rodrigues Dantas, Cosme Corres, and Manuel Corres. Trombay and Chembur had been granted to Dom Roque Tello de Menezes, and the Island of Pory (Elephanta Island) to João Pirez in 1548.[50] Garcia de Orta, a Portuguese doctor and botanist, was granted the possession of Bombay in 1554 by viceroy Pedro Mascarenhas.

The Portuguese inspired intermarriage with the native inhabitants, and strongly supported the Roman Catholic Church.[52] In 1560, they began proselytising the native Koli, Kunbi, Kumbhar inhabitants in Mahim, Worli, and Bassein.[53] These Christians had been referred to by the British as Portuguese Christians, although they had been Nestorian Christians who had solely just lately established ties with the Roman Catholic Church.[54] During this time, Bombay’s foremost commerce was coconuts and coir.[55] After Antonio Pessoa’s loss of life in 1571, a patent was issued which granted Mazagaon in perpetuity to the Sousa e Lima household.[49] The St. Andrew Church at Bandra was inbuilt 1575.[56]

The annexation of Portugal by Spain in 1580 opened the best way for different European powers to comply with the spice routes to India. The Dutch arrived first, intently adopted by the British.[57] The first English retailers arrived in Bombay in November 1583, and travelled via Bassein, Thane, and Chaul.[58] The Portuguese Franciscans had obtained sensible management of Salsette and Mahim by 1585, and constructed Nossa Senhora de Bom Concelho (Our Lady of Good Counsel) at Sion and Nossa Senhora de Salvação (Our Lady of Salvation) at Dadar in 1596. The Battle of Swally was fought between the British and the Portuguese at Surat in 1612 for the possession of Bombay.[45] Dorabji Nanabhoy, a dealer, was the primary Parsi to settle in Bombay in 1640. Castella de Aguada (Fort of the Waterpoint) was constructed by the Portuguese at Bandra in 1640 as a watchtower overlooking the Mahim Bay, the Arabian Sea and the southern island of Mahim.[59] The rising energy of the Dutch by the center of the seventeenth century compelled the Surat Council of the British Empire to accumulate Bombay from King John IV of Portugal in 1659.[45] The marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Portugal on 8 May 1661 positioned Bombay in British possession as part of Catherine’s dowry to Charles.